ENIGMA / MCMXC a.D. - MCMXC a.D. is the first studio album from the German music project Enigma, headed by Romanian-German musician Michael Cretu, released in November 1990. MCMXC a.D. was recorded in 1990 across eight months at A.R.T. Studios located in Cretu's home on the Spanish island of Ibiza. It is one of the first albums recorded on a hard disk drive. The chants used on "Sadeness" and "Mea Culpa" were mostly taken from Paschale Mysterium (1976) by the German choir Capella Antiqua München with conductor Konrad Ruhland, specifically from the track "Procedamus in pace! (Antiphon)". The vocals were used without permission which led to a lawsuit. Cretu did not say who was the male voice speaking in French in "Sadeness (Part I)", only describing him as a good friend of his. MCMXC a.D. is considered a landmark and innovative New-age album. Cretu developed the idea of sampling. Though samples had been used by artists such as Jean-Michel Jarre and Klaus Schulze, Cretu built his music around whole sequences of previously recorded parts. This method was adopted by many hip-hop and electronic music artists.